I talk a lot about liens as a good way for a creditor to get paid. In state courts and bankruptcy courts, there often are two lines formed: one for those with liens, and the other for those without liens. And you can guess which one leads to the money.
Under Tennessee statutes, there are liens for all kinds of people: mechanics, artisans; dentists; jewelers; shoe repairers; cotton ginners; lithographers; baggage claim folks...just to name a few.
But let's talk about attorney liens today.
Under Tenn. Code Ann. § 23-2-102, an attorney who files a lawsuit "shall have a lien upon the plaintiff's or complainant's right of action from the date of the filing of the suit." (Or, per Tenn. Code Ann. § 23-2-103, the attorney has a lien from the date that the attorney starts work on the case.)
This lien extends to two types of property. The first is a "retaining lien," which gives the attorney the right to retain a client's books, papers, or money coming into his possession during the matter until the client pays. The second is a "charging lien," which is a lien for payment of fees against the judgment or recovery obtained in a case. For a good review of this, see Starks v. Browning
, 20 S.W.3d 645, 650 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1999).
There's some old caselaw out there that suggests that the attorney must have the lien noted in the Judgment to be valid. The Starks case above (involving the venerable Nashville lawyer, Bart Durham) says that requirement is not in the statute and is just an odd creation from old caselaw.
But, I say that it's a good practice to note the attorney lien any- and every-where (in judgments, in notices filed with the Court, notices recorded in the Register's Office), but it's not legally required.
The statutes above don't cover all situations where an attorney might have a lien; in fact, other specific statutes, like worker's compensation matters, may have their own special rules. Additionally, nothing would stop a collection minded lawyer from obtaining a consensual lien as part of his or her client engagement documents, particularly where client resources may eventually be scarce.
Long story short, the attorney lien statutes are probably narrower than you thought they were, granting a lien generally only the lawsuit filed by the attorney. Any other, broader liens to secure repayment must be granted or taken under other statutes (judgment liens, consensual liens).